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27 Nov 2017

Howard League publishes ethnicity analysis of child arrests following the Lammy Review

City police officers on the beat on Bethnal Green Road, London, England, UK

Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) children accounted for 60 per cent of all child arrests by the Metropolitan Police last year, analysis by the Howard League for Penal Reform reveals today (Monday 27 November).

The Metropolitan Police made more than 20,000 child arrests in 2016, of which more than 12,000 were of BAME children – the highest proportion recorded by any police force in England and Wales.

Across England and Wales, police forces made fewer than 88,000 arrests of children in total last year, down from almost 250,000 in 2010. BAME children accounted for 26 per cent of all child arrests.

The Howard League, which has led a successful campaign to reduce child arrests, has analysed its figures following the findings of the Lammy Review, an independent review of the treatment of, and outcomes for, BAME individuals in the criminal justice system.

The Lammy Review, chaired by David Lammy MP, called for a principle of ‘explain or reform’ to apply to every institution in the criminal justice system: “If agencies cannot provide an evidence-based explanation for apparent disparities between ethnic groups then reforms should be introduced to address those disparities.”

Frances Crook, Chief Executive of the Howard League for Penal Reform, said: “The Howard League is proud to have played a key role in reducing child arrests across England and Wales. Working together with the police, we have ensured that tens of thousands of children will have a brighter future and not be dragged into a downward spiral of crime and custody.

“There is still more work to do, however, and the disproportionate number of BAME children being brought into the system is of great concern. It raises serious questions about decision-making throughout the criminal justice journey – from the police’s decision to arrest, to the remand and sentencing decisions of the youth courts.

“The Lammy Review has called on police forces and other criminal justice agencies to either explain disparities or reform. Our analysis of child arrests data is intended to assist this discussion.”

The Howard League’s figures, compiled from data supplied by police in response to Freedom of Information requests, show that the Metropolitan (60 per cent), Bedfordshire (42 per cent) and West Midlands (41 per cent) forces recorded the highest proportions of BAME child arrests in 2016.

The lowest proportions were recorded by the Cumbria (2 per cent), Durham (2 per cent), Cleveland (3 per cent), Norfolk (3 per cent) and Northumbria (4 per cent) forces.

The first recommendation of the Lammy Review is that a more consistent approach to recording data on ethnicity should be agreed across the criminal justice system. The Howard League’s research found that such an approach is required – as recording practices varied between police forces, often significantly.

Two police forces – Norfolk and Suffolk – failed to record ethnicity in more than half of the arrests that they made in 2016. Thames Valley Police did not provide ethnicity figures at all, while Derbyshire Police was only able to give data for a seven-month period. Lancashire Police changed its recording system midway through the year.

BAME populations vary in size from police force area to police force area, and a lack of population data specifically in relation to boys and girls aged 10 to 17 makes it difficult to assess whether forces are making a disproportionately high number of BAME child arrests.

A guide comes in the form of a table on the Home Office’s crime-mapping website, www.police.uk, which lists, for each police force area, the proportion of the total population that is BAME. Although this information relates to people of all ages, it provides at least an indication of the police areas where most BAME children are likely to live.

The figures raise some questions for police forces and politicians to consider, in light of the Lammy Review’s call for criminal justice agencies to ‘explain or reform’ – particularly in areas where the proportion of BAME child arrests is significantly higher than the BAME proportion of the total population.

The Metropolitan Police recorded a 60 per cent BAME child arrest rate while policing an area with a 40 per cent BAME population.

BAME children accounted for 42 per cent of child arrests in Bedfordshire, a policing area where only 23 per cent of the total population is BAME.

In the West Midlands, where 30 per cent of the total population is BAME, police recorded a BAME child arrest rate of 41 per cent.

Earlier this year, the Howard League published a briefing, Child arrests in England and Wales 2016, which showed how reducing the number of children entering the system had stemmed the flow of children into custody.

The briefing stated that the positive trend across police forces had been led at a national level, most notably by the National Police Chiefs’ Council, which has prioritised improvements in the policing of children.

However, while the number of children in prison has fallen, the proportion of BAME children in custody has risen, raising questions for the Crown Prosecution Service and the youth courts.

In a report published earlier this week, HM Inspectorate of Prisons drew attention to the disproportionate number of BAME children in custody.

The report, Children in Custody 2016-17, revealed that almost half of children in jails were BAME.

The Howard League regularly meets and corresponds with police forces and shares examples of good practice in local areas.

Keeping children out of the criminal justice system helps prevent crime. Academic research has shown that the more contact a child has with the system, the more entrenched they are likely to become, which increases reoffending rates.

Notes to editors

  1. The Howard League for Penal Reform is the oldest penal reform charity in the world. It is a national charity working for less crime, safer communities and fewer people in prison.
  1. The Howard League for Penal Reform made freedom of information requests for data from all police services in England and Wales.
  1. Child arrests in England and Wales 2016 can be read on the Howard League website.
  1. The Howard League counted arrests recorded by police under the following categories as BAME: ‘Asian Bangladeshi’; ‘Asian Indian’; ‘Asian Pakistani’; ‘Asian – Any Other Background’; ‘Asian’; ‘Arabic or North African’; ‘Black African/African’; ‘Black/Black British’; ‘Black Caribbean’; ‘Black – Any Other Background’; ‘Mixed – White and Asian’; ‘Mixed – White and Black African’; ‘Mixed – White and Black Caribbean’; ‘Mixed – Any Other Background’; ‘Other – Chinese’; ‘Other – Chinese, Japanese, South East Asian’; ‘Middle Eastern’; ‘Other – Any Other Ethnic Group’; ‘Dark European’; ‘Romany Gypsy’; and ‘Traveller/Irish Traveller’.
  1. The Howard League counted arrests recorded by police under the following categories as non-BAME: ‘Welsh’; ‘White British/British’; ‘White – Northern European’; ‘White – Southern European’; ‘White European’; ‘White – Any Other Background’; and ‘English’.
  1. The Howard League counted arrests recorded by police under the following categories as ‘Other’: ‘N3 (did not understand what was required)’; ‘Not recorded’; ‘Unknown’; ‘Not stated’; ‘Not specified’; and ‘Refused’.
  1. HM Inspectorate of Prisons’ report, Children in Custody 2016-17: An analysis of 12-18-year-olds’ perceptions of their experiences in secure training centres and young offender institutions, can be read on the inspectorate’s website.
  1. Child arrest data from each police service in England and Wales is shown in the table below:
Police force Number of BAME child arrests Number of non-BAME child arrests Number of ‘Other’ child arrests Total number of child arrests % of BAME child arrests % of non-BAME child arrests % of ‘Other’ child arrests BAME proportion of total police force area population1
Avon and Somerset 295 1,216 22 1,533 19% 79% 1% 7%
Bedfordshire 452 625 8 1,085 42% 58% 1% 23%
British Transport Police 27 82 21 130 21% 63% 16% 14%
Cambridgeshire 225 735 53 1,013 22% 73% 5% 10%
Cheshire 86 1,089 12 1187 7% 92% 1% 3%
City of London 13 30 8 51 25% 59% 16% 21%
Cleveland 37 1,168 1 1,206 3% 97% 0% 6%
Cumbria 16 879 5 900 2% 98% 1% 2%
Derbyshire2 88 551 162 801 11% 69% 20% 7%
Devon and Cornwall 52 846 96 994 5% 85% 10% 3%
Dorset 72 368 7 447 16% 82% 2% 4%
Durham 22 1,128 7 1,157 2% 97% 1% 2%
Dyfed Powys 127 373 1 501 25% 74% 0% 2%
Essex 443 2,006 139 2,588 17% 78% 5% 7%
Gloucestershire 88 555 20 663 13% 84% 3% 5%
Greater Manchester 804 2,654 256 3,714 22% 71% 7% 16%
Gwent 74 834 22 930 8% 90% 2% 4%
Hampshire 243 1,465 3 1,711 14% 86% 0% 7%
Hertfordshire 385 1,101 72 1,558 25% 71% 5% 12%
Humberside 80 1,323 6 1,409 6% 94% 0% 4%
Kent 431 2,118 351 2,900 15% 73% 12% 7%
Lancashire3 243 2,381 151 2,775 9% 86% 5% 10%
Leicestershire 213 592 1 806 26% 73% 0% 22%
Lincolnshire 50 844 19 913 5% 92% 2% 2%
Merseyside 216 2,315 39 2,570 8% 90% 2% 6%
Metropolitan 12,276 7,722 389 20,387 60% 38% 2% 40%
Norfolk 43 460 758 1,261 3% 36% 60% 4%
North Wales 77 1,455 0 1,532 5% 95% 0% 3%
North Yorkshire 52 1,074 165 1,291 4% 83% 13% 3%
Northamptonshire 213 643 29 885 24% 73% 3% 9%
Northumbria 100 2,722 16 2,838 4% 96% 1% 5%
Nottinghamshire 327 1,086 53 1,466 22% 74% 4% 11%
South Wales 177 2,226 96 2,499 7% 89% 4% 7%
South Yorkshire 255 1,133 8 1,396 18% 81% 1% 9%
Staffordshire 227 1,104 19 1,350 17% 82% 1% 6%
Suffolk 54 367 437 858 6% 43% 51% 5%
Surrey 192 665 32 889 22% 75% 4% 10%
Sussex 354 1,587 244 2,185 16% 73% 11% 6%
Thames Valley4 0 0 0 2,446 0% 0% 0% 15%
Warwickshire 105 473 19 597 18% 79% 3% 7%
West Mercia 175 1,054 18 1,247 14% 85% 1% 4%
West Midlands 2,165 3,017 62 5,244 41% 58% 1% 30%
West Yorkshire 869 3,570 224 4,663 19% 77% 5% 18%
Wiltshire 136 790 27 953 14% 83% 3% 6%
TOTAL 22,579 58,426 4,078 87,529 26% 67% 5%

1BAME population figures are taken from the Home Office’s crime mapping website. The relevant table can be found here. (Accessed on 22 November 2017.)

2Due to a change in its custody system, Derbyshire Police was only able to provide data for the period from 21 June 2016 to 31 December 2016. The force stated that the total number of child arrests made during this period was 797. However, the arrest figures supplied, broken down by ethnicity, actually total 801.

3Lancashire Police introduced a new custody system in June 2016, leading to a change in the way that ethnicity data was recorded. Child arrests up to 8 June 2016 were recorded under the following categories: ‘White – British’; ‘Asian – Pakistani’; ‘White – Any other White ethnic background’; ‘Mixed – White and Black Caribbean’; ‘Not stated’; ‘Black – Caribbean’; ‘Mixed – White and Black African’; ‘White – Irish’; ‘Mixed – White and Asian’; ‘Black – African’; ‘Mixed – Any other Mixed ethnic background’; ‘Asian – Any other Asian ethnic background’; ‘Asian – Bangladeshi’; ‘Black – Any other Black ethnic background’; ‘Asian – Indian’; and ‘Any other ethnic group’. Child arrests after 8 June 2016 were recorded under the following categories: ‘Asian’; ‘Black’; ‘White – Northern European’; ‘White – Southern European’; ‘Middle Eastern’; ‘Chinese/Japanese/SE Asian’; and ‘Not specified’.

4Thames Valley Police did not provide ethnicity figures.

Contact

Rob Preece
Campaigns and Communications Manager
The Howard League for Penal Reform
Tel: +44 (0)20 7241 7880
Mobile: +44 (0)7714 604955
Email: robert.preece@howardleague.org

ISDN line available on 020 7923 4196 – uses a G722 system

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